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塔式起重機安全事故的經驗教訓
   隨著近年來建筑行業塔式起重機的大量使用,各類塔式起重機安全事故也伴隨其數量的增多而大量涌現。針對各類事故的成因,有關管理部門也相應出臺了若干管理措施,從起重機的設計、制造、安裝、使用、檢驗、維修保養和改造等環節進行監管,如對塔式起重機制造單位進行生產許可、對安裝單位進行資質管理、起重機安裝使用前的驗收登記、使用過程中監督部門的監督抽查等,在一定程度上減少了塔式起重機安全事故的發生。但由于工地中塔式起重機使用單位的專業技術水平有限、安全意識薄弱等原因.使得在塔式起重機的使用環節上存在有比較大的安全漏洞。

  在(zai)(zai)某工地就發生(sheng)了(le)這樣(yang)一起(qi)塔式起(qi)重(zhong)機(ji)(ji)(ji)安全事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)。事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)發生(sheng)時(shi)(shi)(shi)起(qi)重(zhong)機(ji)(ji)(ji)吊(diao)(diao)鉤(gou)正在(zai)(zai)起(qi)吊(diao)(diao)物料。在(zai)(zai)上升(sheng)到(dao)4m左右高度時(shi)(shi)(shi)吊(diao)(diao)鉤(gou)突然下滑。司(si)機(ji)(ji)(ji)反應不(bu)及。導致所吊(diao)(diao)物料及吊(diao)(diao)鉤(gou)直(zhi)接墜落地面的(de)事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)。有關部門對事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)原(yuan)因(yin)進行(xing)查驗,發現(xian)(xian)所吊(diao)(diao)物料重(zhong)量并未超過(guo)起(qi)重(zhong)機(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)額(e)定起(qi)重(zhong)量。提升(sheng)鋼絲繩(sheng)及其接頭(tou)也(ye)無松(song)脫或(huo)(huo)(huo)斷裂現(xian)(xian)象,因(yin)此(ci)(ci)可(ke)初步排除超載的(de)原(yuan)因(yin)。在(zai)(zai)對事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)設備起(qi)升(sheng)機(ji)(ji)(ji)構進行(xing)檢(jian)查發現(xian)(xian),該起(qi)升(sheng)機(ji)(ji)(ji)構是(shi)通過(guo)不(bu)同電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)吸(xi)合(he)(he)(he)(he)來達(da)到(dao)轉(zhuan)換(huan)傳(chuan)動(dong)(dong)(dong)比的(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)。而其電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)存在(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷移位(wei)及磨(mo)損(sun)情況,在(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)控(kong)箱內控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)欠(qian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)被(bei)短接且調(diao)節螺(luo)絲調(diao)至(zhi)頂死(si)位(wei)置。在(zai)(zai)此(ci)(ci)。我們先(xian)對事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)設備電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)進行(xing)分析(xi)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)欠(qian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)FS4的(de)檢(jian)流(liu)(liu)線(xian)(xian)圈串聯在(zai)(zai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong),FS4常(chang)開控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)觸(chu)(chu)點串聯在(zai)(zai)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)起(qi)重(zhong)機(ji)(ji)(ji)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)回路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)。工作(zuo)時(shi)(shi)(shi),通過(guo)轉(zhuan)換(huan)開關SA控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)吸(xi)合(he)(he)(he)(he)來傳(chuan)遞(di)不(bu)同的(de)傳(chuan)動(dong)(dong)(dong)比,當轉(zhuan)換(huan)開關SA轉(zhuan)到(dao)I檔或(huo)(huo)(huo)II檔時(shi)(shi)(shi).中(zhong)(zhong)間繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)Kl或(huo)(huo)(huo)K2吸(xi)合(he)(he)(he)(he),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)線(xian)(xian)圈YC1或(huo)(huo)(huo)YC2與欠(qian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)檢(jian)流(liu)(liu)線(xian)(xian)圈FS4形成(cheng)回路(lu).電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)得電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)吸(xi)合(he)(he)(he)(he)從(cong)而能(neng)(neng)傳(chuan)遞(di)動(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)。當通過(guo)FS4中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)低于設定值(即回路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)不(bu)能(neng)(neng)維(wei)持電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)正常(chang)吸(xi)合(he)(he)(he)(he))時(shi)(shi)(shi),FS4串聯在(zai)(zai)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)回路(lu)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)常(chang)開觸(chu)(chu)點斷開,制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)抱閘。若(ruo)欠(qian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)常(chang)開觸(chu)(chu)點被(bei)短接或(huo)(huo)(huo)設置電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)值過(guo)小(xiao),電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)不(bu)能(neng)(neng)或(huo)(huo)(huo)不(bu)能(neng)(neng)完全將電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)機(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)動(dong)(dong)(dong)力(li)(li)傳(chuan)遞(di)給卷筒,而此(ci)(ci)時(shi)(shi)(shi)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)動(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)通電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)松(song)閘就會(hui)造成(cheng)溜鉤(gou)事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)。查閱該機(ji)(ji)(ji)型的(de)使用說明書發現(xian)(xian),說明書中(zhong)(zhong)也(ye)有明確規定該欠(qian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)常(chang)開點不(bu)能(neng)(neng)因(yin)閉合(he)(he)(he)(he)延時(shi)(shi)(shi)而調(diao)至(zhi)常(chang)閉,否(fou)則(ze)會(hui)造成(cheng)起(qi)升(sheng)溜鉤(gou)。因(yin)此(ci)(ci),可(ke)推斷造成(cheng)本次事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)的(de)原(yuan)因(yin)是(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)磁離(li)合(he)(he)(he)(he)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)刷移位(wei)及磨(mo)損(sun),并且欠(qian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)繼(ji)(ji)(ji)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)被(bei)短接且調(diao)節螺(luo)絲調(diao)至(zhi)頂死(si)位(wei)置。其事(shi)(shi)(shi)故(gu)的(de)根本原(yuan)因(yin)是(shi)在(zai)(zai)設備的(de)使

  用管理上存在嚴重的(de)(de)缺失。首先對電(dian)磁(ci)離合器(qi)存在故障未能(neng)及時發現,其次維修人(ren)員在未仔(zi)細(xi)查閱使(shi)用說明(ming)的(de)(de)情(qing)況(kuang)下隨意調整及短(duan)接欠電(dian)流繼電(dian)器(qi),也未有(you)相關的(de)(de)管理人(ren)員對維修情(qing)況(kuang)進行(xing)跟(gen)蹤檢查.因而導(dao)致(zhi)了事故的(de)(de)發生。

  塔式起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機作為特種(zhong)設備(bei),由(you)設計到制(zhi)造均經過(guo)一系(xi)列嚴格的計算和(he)試驗,國(guo)家監督(du)管理部門對起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機的生產過(guo)程進行了有效的監督(du).起(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)機上的各類機構、安(an)全裝置、電氣控制(zhi)系(xi)統均有其(qi)特定的功能(neng)及重(zhong)(zhong)要性,均符合相關(guan)的安(an)全技術規范(fan)。根據《特種(zhong)設備(bei)安(an)全監察條例(li)》規定,

  特(te)種設(she)(she)備的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當具有與特(te)種設(she)(she)備維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)相(xiang)適應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)專業(ye)(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)人(ren)員和(he)(he)(he)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)工(gong)人(ren)以(yi)及(ji)必(bi)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)檢(jian)測手段,并經省、自治區、直(zhi)轄市(shi)特(te)種設(she)(she)備安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)監督管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)部門許(xu)可(ke),方可(ke)從(cong)(cong)事(shi)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)活動。但對(dui)于一般的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)工(gong)企業(ye)(ye)(ye)(起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei))。其(qi)(qi)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)專業(ye)(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)水平(ping)較低,在(zai)未(wei)(wei)能完全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)了(le)解(jie)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)性能的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情況下(xia)而隨意(yi)調節(jie)、改(gai)裝(zhuang)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)裝(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)電氣控制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)裝(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)將可(ke)能導致嚴重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)故。例如有部分使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)隨意(yi)調大(da)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)力矩(ju)限制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器(qi)和(he)(he)(he)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)量限制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)器(qi),更有一些單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)由不同機(ji)(ji)型部件(jian)組裝(zhuang)而成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)。從(cong)(cong)這起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)塔式起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)事(shi)故中(zhong)我們看出(chu)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)對(dui)大(da)型起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)上存(cun)在(zai)有較大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題(ti).主要(yao)(yao)有以(yi)下(xia)幾點:①施(shi)工(gong)企業(ye)(ye)(ye)未(wei)(wei)建(jian)立(li)(li)(li)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)體(ti)系;②未(wei)(wei)落實(shi)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)各級的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)人(ren)員及(ji)責任(ren)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)度(du):③安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)人(ren)員專業(ye)(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)水平(ping)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缺乏;④安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)手段的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)實(shi)施(shi)及(ji)其(qi)(qi)落實(shi)。施(shi)工(gong)企業(ye)(ye)(ye)要(yao)(yao)從(cong)(cong)根(gen)本上解(jie)決工(gong)地中(zhong)塔式起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)問題(ti),就必(bi)須建(jian)立(li)(li)(li)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)完善的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)體(ti)系。以(yi)下(xia)本人(ren)就工(gong)地起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)方面提出(chu)幾點建(jian)議:①使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當建(jian)立(li)(li)(li)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)檔案。安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)檔案應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當包(bao)括:1)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)設(she)(she)計(ji)文(wen)件(jian)(包(bao)括總圖和(he)(he)(he)電氣、液壓原理(li)圖),產(chan)品質(zhi)量合格證(zheng)明,相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造、安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)裝(zhuang)、改(gai)造、重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)大(da)維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)監督檢(jian)驗證(zheng)明,安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)裝(zhuang)和(he)(he)(he)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)維(wei)(wei)護說明等(deng)文(wen)件(jian)以(yi)及(ji)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)裝(zhuang)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)文(wen)件(jian)和(he)(he)(he)資料;2)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)期檢(jian)驗和(he)(he)(he)定(ding)(ding)期自行(xing)(xing)檢(jian)查(cha)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)記(ji)錄(lu)(lu);3)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)日(ri)常(chang)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)狀(zhuang)(zhuang)況記(ji)錄(lu)(lu);4)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)及(ji)其(qi)(qi)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)附件(jian)、安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保(bao)護裝(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)日(ri)常(chang)維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)保(bao)養(yang)記(ji)錄(lu)(lu);5)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)運行(xing)(xing)故障(zhang)和(he)(he)(he)事(shi)故記(ji)錄(lu)(lu);6)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)登記(ji)證(zheng)。②使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)建(jian)立(li)(li)(li)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)責任(ren)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),配備具有一定(ding)(ding)專業(ye)(ye)(ye)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)水平(ping)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)人(ren)員對(dui)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)進(jin)行(xing)(xing)日(ri)常(chang)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li),確立(li)(li)(li)各級人(ren)員的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)崗位(wei)(wei)職(zhi)責。③起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理(li)人(ren)員應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)定(ding)(ding)期對(dui)設(she)(she)備進(jin)行(xing)(xing)檢(jian)查(cha)并做(zuo)好(hao)記(ji)錄(lu)(lu),對(dui)發(fa)現的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題(ti)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當按(an)照相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)規范和(he)(he)(he)技(ji)(ji)術(shu)(shu)(shu)資料進(jin)行(xing)(xing)處理(li),對(dui)于無法處理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)問題(ti)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)當咨詢廠家或(huo)有資質(zhi)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)意(yi)見。問題(ti)處理(li)后應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)對(dui)設(she)(she)備進(jin)行(xing)(xing)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)檢(jian)查(cha)并做(zuo)好(hao)記(ji)錄(lu)(lu)。④使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)定(ding)(ding)期對(dui)作(zuo)業(ye)(ye)(ye)人(ren)員進(jin)行(xing)(xing)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育(yu),定(ding)(ding)期收集作(zuo)業(ye)(ye)(ye)人(ren)員在(zai)設(she)(she)備使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)過程中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)狀(zhuang)(zhuang)況。⑤作(zuo)業(ye)(ye)(ye)人(ren)員應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)對(dui)設(she)(she)備進(jin)行(xing)(xing)日(ri)常(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)護保(bao)養(yang),定(ding)(ding)期檢(jian)查(cha)起(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)(qi)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)機(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)裝(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)并形成記(ji)錄(lu)(lu)。⑥對(dui)于設(she)(she)備的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)或(huo)改(gai)造,使(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)聘請(qing)廠家或(huo)具有相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)資質(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)單(dan)(dan)(dan)位(wei)(wei)進(jin)行(xing)(xing)并對(dui)維(wei)(wei)修(xiu)(xiu)改(gai)造的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)應(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)資料記(ji)錄(lu)(lu)進(jin)行(xing)(xing)歸檔,不得私自改(gai)裝(zhuang)或(huo)拼裝(zhuang)。

  起重機械安全事故的經驗教訓告訴我們,只有對設備使用過程中的各個環節進行有效的管理才能有效控制生產過程中的危險因素、消除生產過程中產生的安全隱患,保證正常生產活動的順利進行。因此,我們應致力于不斷完善我們的安全生產管理制度,提高我們的安全生產管理水平。

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